Download e-book for kindle: Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

ISBN-10: 0199203466

ISBN-13: 9780199203468

The experiences during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective category, yet those differ in personality and in dimension. In its grammatical homes, an adjective category may perhaps beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective type is big and will be freely further to, in others it truly is small and closed. with only a dozen or so participants. The booklet will curiosity students and complicated scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.

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In Semelai (Chapter 12), only the sub-class of DIMENSION adjectives have a morphological comparative (other forms enter into a periphrastic comparative construction, borrowed from Malay). 5. Different possibilities for forming adverbs In Fijian, for example, adverbs can be formed from adjectives (but generally not from verbs) by means of the prefix va'a-; for example, va'a-levu greatly' from levu 'big'—as in (13')—and va'a-dodonu 'correctly' from dodonu correct'. In Japanese, too, it is mainly adjectives which may function as adverbs, this being one of the properties which links the two adjective classes into one macro-class.

And an additional argument is added to the clause, the comparand; the function of the comparand NP is marked by than in English and by preposition mai (which also has the meaning 'from') in Fijian. ) (d) In some languages adjectives may also modify verbs, either in plain form or via a derivational process. The two possibilities can be illustrated from colloquial American English—for example, He speaks (real) bad—and British English—He speaks (really) badly. There may also be more limited possibilities for adverbs to modify adjectives (for example, openly hostile in English).

In Dyirbal a noun is generally accompanied by a noun marker, a determiner-like element which indicates location/visibility, agrees with the noun in case, and marks the noun class of the noun (this is not shown on the noun itself). Most nouns relate to just one noun class, while most adjectives can occur with a noun marker of any class. Compare (noting that in fact the words in an NP can occur in any order): (27) (a) (b) (c) (d) bayiyam 'man balan yibi 'woman balam mirrany 'black bean bala diban 'stone' (28) (a) (b) (c) (d) bayi (yam) midi 'small (man)' balan (yibi) midi 'small (woman)' balam (mirrany) midi 'small (black bean)' bala (diban) midi 'small (stone)' The noun marker 'there' (shown by initial ba-), in absolutive case, has four forms, masculine bayi, feminine balan, edible balam, and neuter bala (see Dixon 1972 for full details).

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Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

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