By Riikka Halme
Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in keeping with the legit Namibian usual) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken by means of excess of part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity comprises the audio system of different closely-related Wambo forms in Angola. those languages were studied really little, and the learn in their tonal platforms has been really overlooked. the current publication is the 1st comic strip of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most objective is to supply an research of the tonal process of this language. for this reason the examine discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical homes. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for approximately part a 12 months and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. so as to aid the reader to stick to the argumentation of the tonal research, this publication is organised in one of these approach that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, through discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor notice different types. After that, the learn is expounded to the broader context of study on Guthrie's workforce R languages, in particular the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader reveals nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.
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Extra info for A tonal grammar of Kwanyama
70) The possibility can’t be ruled out that she will call an early election. (Huddleston & Pullum 2002: 966) Finally, and contrary to what Huddleston & Pullum (2002) claim, there are examples in which an ARC precedes a DRC, and these examples are perfectly acceptable. The DRC is separated from its antecedent by a digression marked by 25 26 Appositive Relative Clauses in English punctuation. For that kind of sentence to be acceptable, the only condition is that the DRC be the only element that follows the ARC (Emonds 1979: 222): (71) We found that movie, which cost plenty, that you so highly recommended.
French ARCs with sentential antecedents are not introduced by que/qui but ce que/ce qui or NP + que/qui (128): (127) J’ai trouvé un livre par terre, lequel avait été perdu par un étudiant. (= ARC) I have found a book on the floor, the which had been lost by a student. I found a book on the floor, which had been lost by a student. a. *J’ai trouvé un livre lequel avait été perdu par un étudiant. (= DRC) I found a book the which had been lost by a student. 12. We are not beyond reproach in this matter, especially in Chapter 1.
Commenting on these observations, Arnold (2004: 18) suggests that ARCs are interpreted semantically like independent clauses while retaining all the syntactic characteristics typical of embedded clauses. 2 De Vries (2002, 2006). Several researchers have explicitly argued in favor of the existence of a coordination link between an ARC and its host. Among them is De Vries, who suggests the existence of a specifying coordination link (symbolized ‘&:P’ in his work) between the ARC and its antecedent.
A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme