By Yunji Wu
This can be the 1st booklet in chinese language linguistics which discusses the grammar of a dialect team from either synchronic and diachronic views. the writer makes use of new info and new frameworks to provide an research of the grammar of the Xiang dialect spoken in Hunan, China. The discussions during this e-book additionally increase new concerns on dialect study that have now not but been absolutely stated via chinese language dialectologists. additionally, the booklet exhibits that the Xiang dialect crew has an enormous strategic price because it varieties a transitional sector among northern and southern chinese language dialects. Key incorporates a enormous paintings at the hugely ignored Xiang dialects in China the 1st particular paintings at the Xiang dialects to seem in English and at the foreign industry an immense reference paintings for typological reports
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Extra resources for A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects
Group 2: Have the 21 tone only. Group 3: Have the 45 tone only. Group 4: Have another tone apart from the 21 and the 45. Group 1: Used with either the 21 or the 45 tone. In SC, 142 forms have two tones and all have corresponding forms in PTH. For some forms, the tones shift according to the age and education of the speaker and the speech context. For others, there is a distinction between local words and borrowed words, and the remaining forms shift quite arbitrarily. An example of this form is provided by the surnames in the group below: 42 Spoken language m bäo Rxiä [pau 21 /pau 45 ] [gia2I/Qia45] u liäo fä he [liau 21 /liau 45 ] [xo 21 /xo 45 ] Even if a person with one of the above surnames uses a different tone when introducing him- or herself, the shift will not create any misunderstanding.
Pronouns (Pron) The pronouns in the Xiang dialects have a number of distinctive features which will be discussed in Chapter 4: - Most pronouns derived from different lexical sources from their Mandarin counterparts, especially the interrogative pronouns. - The word formation of the plural forms of personal pronouns may have been due to tonal variation at an earlier stage. Presently, plural forms in most localities are formed by adding suffixes. 16 Introduction - - In Mandarin, demonstrative pronouns have a two-way system of indicating 'here' and 'there'.
If the reader thinks or knows that the listener does not understand PTH, the preference is to use RC. Professionals such as teachers and government officials are expected to read in PTH, if possible, while teaching, presenting papers or presiding at meetings. A similar constraint applies in political discussion groups, where participants are often required to read aloud. Nevertheless, the use of RC in these contexts is also very common, because most people do not know PTH well enough to use it with confidence in such contexts.
A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects by Yunji Wu