John G. Webster (Editor) 's 41.Oceanic Engineering PDF

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W. Wersing K. Lubitz J. Mohaupt Anisotropic piezoelectric effect in modified PbTiO3 ceramics, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 36: 424–433, 1989. Product literature for modified PbTiO3 composition EC-97, Edo-western Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT. Flatpac Hydrophone, Edo-western Corporation, Salt Lake City, UT. H. Kawai Piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride), Jpn. J. Appl. , 8: 975, 1969. R. G. Kepler Ferroelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene Fluoride, in H.

Some of the classical measurements taken by oceanographers are water conductivity, turbidity, salinity, current, depth (pressure), and temperature. Common systems used at sea employ acoustic transducers, hydrophones, seismometers, magnetometers, accelerometers, gyro and magnetic compasses, as well as camera systems, Light Intensity Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), and other laser imaging systems. Conductivity Measurement The electrical conductivity of seawater depends on the temperature of the water and amount of dissolved solids (salts) present.

A voltage gradient is induced in water when it flows through the field. According to the principle of induction, the induced voltage field is the vector product of the velocity and the magnetic field. The magnetic field of the coil depends on the current and the number of turns. But the magnetic field varies with the square of the power. Therefore, with a typical 100 mW dc-powered coil, the resulting field reacts to produce a potential difference of 10 ȐV to 15 ȐV for a flow of one knot. 1 ȐV. Due to chemical uncertainties at the electrode surface, it is nearly impossible to get two electrodes to remain within a few microvolts potential.

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41.Oceanic Engineering by John G. Webster (Editor)

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